Sociology is the social scientific study of society. History is presenting a narrative of the past, based on, whenever possible, primary or eye–witness source. Theory, in sociology and other fields, is scientific knowledge. Theories are scientific explanations.
Religious studies is an interdisciplinary area which incorporates the sociology of religion, the history of religions, the cultural (or social) anthropology of religion, the geography of religion, the economics of religion, the psychology of religion, and others. Popular methodologies, for the scientific study of religion, include the phenomenology of religion, survey research, field research or ethnography (participant observation and intensive interviewing), and various approaches to historiography (historical methods).